ceres-solver / ceres-solver / 74a0f0d246d7230364479f9788a11b605f0c8e05 / . / docs / source / inverse_and_implicit_function_theorems.rst

.. default-domain:: cpp | |

.. cpp:namespace:: ceres | |

.. _chapter-inverse_function_theorem: | |

========================================== | |

Using Inverse & Implicit Function Theorems | |

========================================== | |

Until now we have considered methods for computing derivatives that | |

work directly on the function being differentiated. However, this is | |

not always possible. For example, if the function can only be computed | |

via an iterative algorithm, or there is no explicit definition of the | |

function available. In this section we will see how we can use two | |

basic results from calculus to get around these difficulties. | |

Inverse Function Theorem | |

======================== | |

Suppose we wish to evaluate the derivative of a function :math:`f(x)`, | |

but evaluating :math:`f(x)` is not easy. Say it involves running an | |

iterative algorithm. You could try automatically differentiating the | |

iterative algorithm, but even if that is possible, it can become quite | |

expensive. | |

In some cases we get lucky, and computing the inverse of :math:`f(x)` | |

is an easy operation. In these cases, we can use the `Inverse Function | |

Theorem <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_function_theorem>`_ to | |

compute the derivative exactly. Here is the key idea: | |

Assuming that :math:`y=f(x)` is continuously differentiable in a | |

neighborhood of a point :math:`x` and :math:`Df(x)` is the invertible | |

Jacobian of :math:`f` at :math:`x`, then by applying the chain rule to | |

the identity :math:`f^{-1}(f(x)) = x`, we have | |

:math:`Df^{-1}(f(x))Df(x) = I`, or :math:`Df^{-1}(y) = (Df(x))^{-1}`, | |

i.e., the Jacobian of :math:`f^{-1}` is the inverse of the Jacobian of | |

:math:`f`, or :math:`Df(x) = (Df^{-1}(y))^{-1}`. | |

For example, let :math:`f(x) = e^x`. Now of course we know that | |

:math:`Df(x) = e^x`, but let's try and compute it via the Inverse | |

Function Theorem. For :math:`x > 0`, we have :math:`f^{-1}(y) = \log | |

y`, so :math:`Df^{-1}(y) = \frac{1}{y}`, so :math:`Df(x) = | |

(Df^{-1}(y))^{-1} = y = e^x`. | |

You maybe wondering why the above is true. A smoothly differentiable | |

function in a small neighborhood is well approximated by a linear | |

function. Indeed this is a good way to think about the Jacobian, it is | |

the matrix that best approximates the function linearly. Once you do | |

that, it is straightforward to see that *locally* :math:`f^{-1}(y)` is | |

best approximated linearly by the inverse of the Jacobian of | |

:math:`f(x)`. | |

Let us now consider a more practical example. | |

Geodetic Coordinate System Conversion | |

------------------------------------- | |

When working with data related to the Earth, one can use two different | |

coordinate systems. The familiar (latitude, longitude, height) | |

Latitude-Longitude-Altitude coordinate system or the `ECEF | |

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECEF>`_ coordinate systems. The former | |

is familiar but is not terribly convenient analytically. The latter is | |

a Cartesian system but not particularly intuitive. So systems that | |

process earth related data have to go back and forth between these | |

coordinate systems. | |

The conversion between the LLA and the ECEF coordinate system requires | |

a model of the Earth, the most commonly used one being `WGS84 | |

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System#1984_version>`_. | |

Going from the spherical :math:`(\phi,\lambda,h)` to the ECEF | |

:math:`(x,y,z)` coordinates is easy. | |

.. math:: | |

\chi &= \sqrt{1 - e^2 \sin^2 \phi} | |

X &= \left( \frac{a}{\chi} + h \right) \cos \phi \cos \lambda | |

Y &= \left( \frac{a}{\chi} + h \right) \cos \phi \sin \lambda | |

Z &= \left(\frac{a(1-e^2)}{\chi} +h \right) \sin \phi | |

Here :math:`a` and :math:`e^2` are constants defined by `WGS84 | |

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System#1984_version>`_. | |

Going from ECEF to LLA coordinates requires an iterative algorithm. So | |

to compute the derivative of the this transformation we invoke the | |

Inverse Function Theorem as follows: | |

.. code-block:: c++ | |

Eigen::Vector3d ecef; // Fill some values | |

// Iterative computation. | |

Eigen::Vector3d lla = ECEFToLLA(ecef); | |

// Analytic derivatives | |

Eigen::Matrix3d lla_to_ecef_jacobian = LLAToECEFJacobian(lla); | |

bool invertible; | |

Eigen::Matrix3d ecef_to_lla_jacobian; | |

lla_to_ecef_jacobian.computeInverseWithCheck(ecef_to_lla_jacobian, invertible); | |

Implicit Function Theorem | |

========================= | |

Consider now the problem where we have two variables :math:`x \in | |

\mathbb{R}^m` and :math:`y \in \mathbb{R}^n` and a function | |

:math:`F:\mathbb{R}^m \times \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n` | |

such that :math:`F(x,y) = 0` and we wish to calculate the Jacobian of | |

:math:`y` with respect to `x`. How do we do this? | |

If for a given value of :math:`(x,y)`, the partial Jacobian | |

:math:`D_2F(x,y)` is full rank, then the `Implicit Function Theorem | |

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implicit_function_theorem>`_ tells us | |

that there exists a neighborhood of :math:`x` and a function :math:`G` | |

such :math:`y = G(x)` in this neighborhood. Differentiating | |

:math:`F(x,G(x)) = 0` gives us | |

.. math:: | |

D_1F(x,y) + D_2F(x,y)DG(x) &= 0 | |

DG(x) &= -(D_2F(x,y))^{-1} D_1 F(x,y) | |

D y(x) &= -(D_2F(x,y))^{-1} D_1 F(x,y) | |

This means that we can compute the derivative of :math:`y` with | |

respect to :math:`x` by multiplying the Jacobian of :math:`F` w.r.t | |

:math:`x` by the inverse of the Jacobian of :math:`F` w.r.t :math:`y`. | |

Let's consider two examples. | |

Roots of a Polynomial | |

--------------------- | |

The first example we consider is a classic. Let :math:`p(x) = a_0 + | |

a_1 x + \dots + a_n x^n` be a degree :math:`n` polynomial, and we wish | |

to compute the derivative of its roots with respect to its | |

coefficients. There is no closed form formula for computing the roots | |

of a general degree :math:`n` polynomial. `Galois | |

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89variste_Galois>`_ and `Abel | |

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niels_Henrik_Abel>`_ proved that. There | |

are numerical algorithms like computing the eigenvalues of the | |

`Companion Matrix | |

<https://nhigham.com/2021/03/23/what-is-a-companion-matrix/>`_, but | |

differentiating an eigenvalue solver does not seem like fun. But the | |

Implicit Function Theorem offers us a simple path. | |

If :math:`x` is a root of :math:`p(x)`, then :math:`F(\mathbf{a}, x) = | |

a_0 + a_1 x + \dots + a_n x^n = 0`. So, | |

.. math:: | |

D_1 F(\mathbf{a}, x) &= [1, x, x^2, \dots, x^n] | |

D_2 F(\mathbf{a}, x) &= \sum_{k=1}^n k a_k x^{k-1} = Dp(x) | |

Dx(a) &= \frac{-1}{Dp(x)} [1, x, x^2, \dots, x^n] | |

Differentiating the Solution to an Optimization Problem | |

------------------------------------------------------- | |

Sometimes we are required to solve optimization problems inside | |

optimization problems, and this requires computing the derivative of | |

the optimal solution (or a fixed point) of an optimization problem | |

w.r.t its parameters. | |

Let :math:`\theta \in \mathbb{R}^m` be a vector, :math:`A(\theta) \in | |

\mathbb{R}^{k\times n}` be a matrix whose entries are a function of | |

:math:`\theta` with :math:`k \ge n` and let :math:`b \in \mathbb{R}^k` | |

be a constant vector, then consider the linear least squares problem: | |

.. math:: | |

x^* = \arg \min_x \|A(\theta) x - b\|_2^2 | |

How do we compute :math:`D_\theta x^*(\theta)`? | |

One approach would be to observe that :math:`x^*(\theta) = | |

(A^\top(\theta)A(\theta))^{-1}A^\top(\theta)b` and then differentiate | |

this w.r.t :math:`\theta`. But this would require differentiating | |

through the inverse of the matrix | |

:math:`(A^\top(\theta)A(\theta))^{-1}`. Not exactly easy. Let's use | |

the Implicit Function Theorem instead. | |

The first step is to observe that :math:`x^*` satisfies the so called | |

*normal equations*. | |

.. math:: | |

A^\top(\theta)A(\theta)x^* - A^\top(\theta)b = 0 | |

We will compute :math:`D_\theta x^*` column-wise, treating | |

:math:`A(\theta)` as a function of one coordinate (:math:`\theta_i`) | |

of :math:`\theta` at a time. So using the normal equations, let's | |

define :math:`F(\theta_i, x^*) = A^\top(\theta_i)A(\theta_i)x^* - | |

A^\top(\theta_i)b = 0`. Using which can now compute: | |

.. math:: | |

D_1F(\theta_i, x^*) &= D_{\theta_i}A^\top A + A^\top | |

D_{\theta_i}Ax^* - D_{\theta_i} A^\top b = g_i | |

D_2F(\theta_i, x^*) &= A^\top A | |

Dx^*(\theta_i) & = -(A^\top A)^{-1} g_i | |

Dx^*(\theta) & = -(A^\top A )^{-1} \left[g_1, \dots, g_m\right] | |

Observe that we only need to compute the inverse of :math:`A^\top A`, | |

to compute :math:`D x^*(\theta)`, which we needed anyways to compute | |

:math:`x^*`. |